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Full Project Title: Test marketing low cost irrigation solutions in Bihar and Jharkhand: Irrigation solution matrix for smallholder farmers (SG512)


Bihar and Jharkhand states in India have a low rate of urbanization and poverty is predominantly rural, and associated with limited access to land, irrigation sources, livestock, poor education and health care, as also low-paid occupations and social status. The majority of the poor (89.5 percent) lives in villages and largely depends on agriculture for their livelihood.

The prime constraint to optimum utilization of land resources is lack of access of the smallholders to appropriate irrigation technology solutions.

The project aimed to develop an Irrigation Solution Matrix (ISM) considering three broad factors: firstly, edifice conditions like water source, depth of ground water and soil conditions; secondly, availability of irrigation solutions in the market with after sale services; thirdly, the economic condition of the farmer such as extent of land ownership and buying capacity. Use of irrigation solutions can lead to increase in farm productivity and household incomes.

Research Highlights

Research highlights

  • The immediate outcome of assured irrigation solutions was the increased incidence of growing crops, increases in the total cropped area and intensity of cropping.
  • Before adoption of the irrigation solutions, there were 23 incidences of growing cash crops like sugarcane and banana, etc, which shot to 48 within a year of having assured irrigation.
  • Adoption of the water technologies increased crop productivity and income with per acre productivity increasing from the baseline 6,211 kg to 8,906 kg.
Project Outcomes

Project outcomes

  • After demonstrations of the various irrigation solutions options available in market, farmers chose the most suitable according to their context and economic conditions. Five irrigation solutions namely Surface Treadle Pump, Rope & Washer Pump, Family Nutrition Kit, Micro-sprinkler and Low-cost drip irrigation systems were offered to the farmers through private supply chain.
  • The impact of the irrigation solutions is evident in the increase in mean irrigated cropped area from 0.26 acres to 0.87 acres. Higher irrigated acreage, both during the baseline survey as well as a year after adoption of technology was reported during Rabi (winter).
Project Partners

Project partners


Project Lead

Project lead


For more information on Phase 1 outputs please contact Udana Ariyawansa.