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Home > Basin > Indo-Ganges > Mixed crop-livestock systems in the Indo-Gangetic Basin (PN68)

Full Project Title: Improving water productivity, reducing poverty and enhancing equity in mixed crop-livestock systems in the Indo-Gangetic Basin (PN68)

Introduction

The livelihoods of millions of farmers in the Indo-Gangetic Basin – particularly for the landless and the small landholders for which incomes from land are not sufficient to meet their basic needs – depends on mixed crop livestock farming systems.

The water needs of livestock have been largely underestimated especially the water requirements for animal feeding. Yet they represent the most important part (>90%) of animal water needs and several studies indicate that there is a high potential for water savings by improving animal feeding.

The primary objective of this project was to optimize the productive use of water in the crop-livestock farming systems of semi-arid areas to enhance livelihoods, reduce poverty, contribute to gender equity, and protect the environment. This was addressed through an integrated approach led by a multi-disciplinary team across the Indo-Gangetic Basin.

Research Highlights

Research highlights

  • Water scarcity, a major problem experienced on a seasonal or regular basis by more than 80% of farmers in all field sites, is an economic and institutional/physical water scarcity due to lack of infrastructure, poor delivery of public services and inequitable access to water resources.
  • The present livestock water requirement to produce a unit of product (milk) was higher in the case study areas than the world average. There was a strong variability of livestock water productivity (LWP) not only among different farming systems but also among farmers within the same system that would suggest a large scope for improvement.
  • All proposed interventions require a better adaptation of the interventions of government bodies to local needs and farmers differentiated access to land and water, which could be supported by a greater decentralization of development planning to local elected bodies; a better integration of food-feed water requirements, favored by a coordinated action among relevant line departments at the state and district level would also greatly support the improvement of water use in crop-livestock systems (CLS).
Project Outcomes

Project outcomes

  • Farmers have changed their knowledge and understanding about fodder cultivation and feed quality improvement: Some farmers have agreed to cultivate green fodder around the new water structures or agreed to treat dry fodder to improve feed quality.
  • Government officials are showing a greater inclination towards integrated planning of livestock, agriculture and small-scale irrigation.
  • The dissemination of project interventions to farmers through relevant material and field demonstrations by NGO partners will support the adoption of practices by farmers among the communities. Ultimately, the change in perception and knowledge on livestock water needs and lack of/inequitable access to water among policy-makers and NGOs has the greatest potential to lead to improved water use at a macro-scale.
Publications and Outputs

To view all outputs from project PN68 visit our document repository.

Selected publications and outputs

Journal articles

  1. Clement, F., Haileslassie, A., Murty, MVR, Blümmel, M., Ishaq, S., Dey, S., Das, H., Samad, M., Khan, M.A., 2010. Increasing Water Productivity for Poverty Alleviation in the Ganga Basin: A livelihood and institutional perspective (under revision, accepted as part of a special issue of Experimental Agriculture with other papers from BMZ project in the Nile Basin on crop-livestock productivity)
  2. Haileslassie A., Blummel M., Murthy M. V. R., Samad M., Clement F., Anandan S., Sreeedar N. A. Radha A. V. and Ishaq, S. Understanding livestock feed and water nexus across mixed crop livestock system’s intensification gradient: an example from the Indio- Ganga Basin (Under revision, accepted as part of a special issue of Experimental Agriculture with other papers from BMZ project in the Nile Basin on crop-livestock productivity)
  3. Haileslassie, A., Blummel, M., Samad, M, Clement, F., Ishaq, S., Adapting livestock water productivity to climate change, (Under revision, accepted in the Journal of Climate Change and Management)

Conference proceedings

  1. Clement, F., Venot J-P., Assessing the environmental justice of water projects and reforms in the rural south: A co-exploration of institutions and myths (to be presented at the workshop “Global Environmental Justice: Towards a new agenda”, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK, 2-3 July 2010, to be published in a journal special issue with other workshop papers in 2010).
  2. Haileslassie A., Blummel M., Murthy M. V. R., Samad M., Clement F., Anandan S., Sreeedar N. A. Radha A. V. and Ishaq, S. 2009. Understanding livestock feed and water nexus across mixed crop livestock system’s intensification gradient: an example from the Indio-Ganga Basin p. 98. In Chandrasekharaiah M., Thulasi A., Suganthi U. and Pal D. T. (Eds) 2009. Diversification of Animal Nutrition Research in the Changing Scenario, Volume I , 17-19 December 2009, Bangalore, India.
  3. Haileslassie, A., Blummel, M., Samad, M, Clement, F., Descheemaeker, K., and Samireddypalle, A., (2010). Building resilience of rainfed production systems to climate change: livestock water productivity perspectives. Proceedings of the National Symposium of Climate Change and Rain fed Agriculture held at CRIDA, 2010, Volume II 398-400. Hyderabad, India.
  4. Haileslassie, A., Blummel, M., Samad, M, Clement, F., Ishaq, S., Adapting livestock water productivity to climate change, Climate Change and Natural Resource use in Eastern Africa: Impacts, adaptations and mitigation, 19-21 May 2010, Nairobi, Kenya.

Papers in preparation

  1. Clement, F., Haileslassie, A., Ishaq, S., Samad, M., Institutions for equitable and sustainable improved water productivity: The case study of crop-livestock systems in the Ganga Basin (to be presented at the International Conference of the International Association of the Commons (IASC) “Sustaining Commons: Sustaining our Future“, Hyderabad, India, 10-14 January 2011).
  2. Haileslassie, A., Blummel, M., Clement, F., Samad, M., Acharya, N. S., Radha A. V., Ishaq S. Micro scale livestock water productivity: assessing option for improvement and its impacts on environmental sustainability.
  3. Haileslassie, A., Blummel, M., Clement, F., Samad, M. Food-feed crops water partitioning approaches to calculate Livestock Water Productivity: exploring options and limitations for sustainability indicator.
  4. Ishaq, S., Clement, F., Samad, M., Acharya N. S., Dey A., Radha, A.V., Blummel, M., Haileslassie, A., and Khan M. A. Triple burden, dual responsibility and single returns: Assessing roadblocks in dairy livestock improvement of landless and land poor livestock keepers from a gender perspective.
Final Report
Project Partners

Project partners

ILRI, ICAR, PRADAN, BAIF

Project Lead

Project lead

IWMI

For more information on Phase 1 outputs please contact Udana Ariyawansa.

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